A top-level domain is a particular element that recognizes certain associated website, which may be an objective (government, business, education ) or a person or a geographical area, it belongs to. Each & every TLD has an independent registry which is controlled by a specific organization, that is managed by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). It also coordinates domains and IP addresses for the internet.
The top-level domain can also be referred as the last segment of a domain name or the part which follows the “dot” symbol. These are mainly classified into two categories: generic TLDs and country-specific TLDs. Examples of some of the popular generic TLDs are .com, .org, .net, .gov, .biz and .edu. and some country-specific TLDs are .in, .au, .uk, .us etc.
Initially, ICANN was very strict about creating new TLDs, but in 2010, it decided to permit the creation of numerous new generic TLDs as well as TLDs that will be used for company-specific trademarks.
ICANN recognizes the following types of TLDs:
Generic Top-Level Domains (gTLD):
These are the most popular types of TDLs. Some examples are “.edu” for educational websites and .”com” for commercial sites.
Country-Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLD):
This ccTLD are usually two letters long which represents a specific country. For example: “.in” represents India.
Sponsored Top-Level Domains (sTLD):
These TLDs are for private organizations.
Infrastructure Top-Level Domains:
There is only one TLD in this category, which is “.arpa”. The IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) controls this TLD for the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
Some of the TLDs represent the follows:
- .com – Commercial businesses.
- .org – Organizations.
- .net – Network organizations.
- .gov – U.S. government agencies.
- .mil – Military.
- .edu – Educational Purpose.
- .th – Thailand.
- .uk – United Kingdom.
- .in – India.
According to the IETF, there are also four particular top-level domain names which are reserved, and can’t be used in productions inside the worldwide web domain name system:
- .example – Only available to be used in examples.
- .invalid – Only available to be used in invalid domain names.
- .localhost – Only available to be used in local computers.
- .test – Only available to be used in tests.
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